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Palermo Stone – English Text Translation

The Palermo stone exists in fragments (1 in Palermo, Sicily,
4 in Cairo and 1 in London). It has short, year by year
accounts of major events, mostly ceremonies, festivals and
rituals. A palm branch arches over each register
representing a year. The translation of each register
therefore should start with the year of… which will be
omitted.

 

2nd Row: Part of the reign of a king, most possibly Djer (1st
Dynasty).
Register 1: wD(yt) Hrw ms(w)t inpw,
Processional Tour (lit. journey) of Horus, Birth of Anubis
(“birth” here and below probably refers to erecting a
dedicatory statue or making a standard which after a ritual
believed to become alive).
Register 2: Abd 6 hrw 7, 6 months and 7 days (time
period in the year left because of the death of the king).
Register 3: Abd 4 hrw 13 zmA tAwi pXr HA inb,
month 4 and day 13 (time of the new king’s ascension to the
throne), Uniting Upper and Lower Egypt (represented by
their heraldic plants around the sign zmA unite), the
festival “Going around the Wall”. (Both “coronation”
ceremonies legitimize the new ruler’s assumption to the
throne).
Register 4: wD(yt) Hrw HAb dSr,
Processional Tour of Horus, Desher-Festival.
Register 5: ms(w)t zAwi biti, birth of two
royal children of Lower Egypt..
Register 6: 1 wD(yt) Hrw kAp […] Processional
Tour of Horus, royal nursery […].
Register 7: Hwt-nTr sxm-nTrw HA HAb-zkr,
[designing] the temple” Might of the Gods,”attendance of
the Festival of Seker.
Register 8: wD(yt) Hrw ms(w)t sSAt, Processional
Tour of Horus, Birth of Seshat.
Register 9: xa(t) (n)swt ms(w)t mnw, Appearance of
the King of Upper Egypt (a ceremony or a festival), Birth of
Min.
Register 10: wD(yt) Hrw, ms(w)t inpw,
Processional Tour of Horus, Birth of Anubis.
Register 11: zp tp Dt-HAb, first time of the DjetFestival.

 

3rd Row: Part of the reign of a king, most possibly Den (1st

Dynasty).
Register 1: 2 aHa Hwt-nTr HkA zAw,
attendance (lit. standing) at the temple of Heka in Sais.
Register 2: sqr iwntiw, smiting the Bedouin3
.
Register 3: xawwi4
nswt-biti HAb-sd, Dual
Appearance (in glory) of the King of Upper and Lower
Egypt, Heb-sed.
Register 4: imnt mHtt S(mA)w iAbt rxyt nbt,
[numbering] all the people of west, north, south and east.
Register 5: zp 2 Dt-HAb, 2nd time of the Djet-Festival.
Register 6: Hwt-nTr swt-nTrw HA HAb-zkr,
[designing] the temple “Thrones of the Gods”, attendance
of the Festival of Seker.
Register 7: pD sSnw Hm-sSAt aA wr Hwt-nTr
swt-nTrw, Stretching the Cord (in foundation ceremony) by
the Seshat-priest for the great door of the temple “Thrones
of the Gods.”
Register 8. wpt S(i) Hwt-nTr swt-nTrw
stt db, opening the lake of the temple “Thrones of the
Gods”, harpooning a hippopotamus (possibly a ritual).
Register 9: aHa nni-(n)sw(t) xm inb HriS.f,
attending the stone shrine of Herishef (Plutarch’s Arsaphes,
creator ram-god) of Heracleopolis Magna.
Register 10: na(t) saH-(n)swt hwt wr-kA, tour
to Sahnesut, smiting of Werka. (The name of the town wr-kA
is a nfr-Hr construction, “great of spirit”.)
Register 11: ms(w)t sd, Birth of Sed (jackal-god,
early form of Wepwawet). (As noted above, “birth” points
to making the standard.)
Register 12: xa(t) biti zp tp pHrr Hpw,
Appearance of the King of Lower Egypt, the first running of
the Apis Bull.
Register 13: ms(w)t sSAt mAfdt, Birth of Seshat and
Mafdet (protective feline-deity).
4th Row: Recording the events during the reign of
King Nynetjer (2nd Dynasty):
Register 1: xa(t) (n)swt pD sSnw Hwt Hrw-rn,
Appearance of the King of Upper Egypt, Stretching the
Cord for the temple Horus-Ren.
Register 2: wD(yt) Hrw zp 4 Tnwt, Processional
Tour of Horus, 4th time of the census (lit. enumeration).
Register 3: xawwi nswt-biti [A]pd anx Hpw,
Dual Appearance of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt,
running of the (living) Apis Bull.
Register 4: wD(yt) Hrw zp 5 Tnwt, Processional
Tour of Horus, 5th time of the census.
Register 5: xa(t) biti zp 2 HAb-zkr, Appearance of
the King of Lower Egypt, 2rd time of the Festival of Seker.
Register 6: wD(yt) Hrw zp 6 Tnwt, Processional
Tour of Horus, 6th time of the census.
Register 7: zp tp Hr-pt-dwA ad Sm-ra
ad mHw, first time of the festival “Horus of Heaven”
hacking up the towns Shemra and Mehu.
Register 8: wD(yt) Hrw zp 7 Tnwt, Processional
Tour of Horus, 7th time of the census.
Register 9: xa(t) biti zp 2 pHrr Hpw,
Appearance of the King of Lower Egypt, 2nd running of the
Apis Bull.
Register 10: wD(yt) Hrw zp 8 Tnwt, Processional
Tour of Horus, 8th time of the census.
Register 11: xa(t) biti zp 3 HAb-zkr, Appearance
of the King of Lower Egypt, 3rd time of the Festival of Seker.
Register 12: wD(yt) Hrw zp 9 Tnwt, Processional
Tour of Horus, 9th time of the census.
Register 13: xa(t) biti mAaw (n)sw(t) Dt-HAb nxbt,
Appearance of the King of Lower Egypt, the King offering
to the goddess Nekhbet, Djet-Festival.
Register 14: wD(yt) Hrw zp 10 Tnwt, Processional
Tour of Horus, 10th time of the census.

5th Row: Recording the events in the reign of King
Khasekhemwy and King Djoser (3rd Dynasty).
Register 1: wD(yt) Hrw zp 6 Tnwt, Processional
Tour of Horus, 6th time of the census.
Register 2: xawwi nswt-biti qd inr nTrt mn,
Dual Appearance of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt,
stone building of “Enduring Goddess.”
Register 3: wD(yt) Hrw zp 7 Tnwt nby,
Processional Tour of Horus, census of the gold(smiths).
Register 4: ms(w)t xa-sxmwi, birth of Khasekhemwy.
Register 5: wD Hrw zp 8 Tnwt nby,
Processional Tour of Horus, census of the gold.
Register 6: zp 4 in(t) mH bAkt inb dwA-Df(A),
4 times bringing to completion the work of the wall of
Duadjefa.
Register 7: Abd 2 hrw 13 xawwi nswt-biti
zmA tAwi pXr HA inb, 2nd month and 13th day, Dual
Appearance of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Uniting
the Two Lands, the festival “Going around the Wall.”
Register 8: xawwi nswt-biti (n)swt
ib(w) snwt, Dual Appearance of the King of Upper and
Lower Egypt, [introduction]of the King to the refuge (of
purification) “Shrine.”
Register 9: wD(yt) Hrw ms(w)t mnw, Processional
Tour of Horus, Birth of Min.
Register 10: xawwi nswt-biti pD sSnw HwtnTr
qbH-nTrw, Dual Appearance of the King of Upper and
Lower Egypt, Stretching the Cord for the temple
“Refreshment of the Gods.”

6th Row: Recording the events in the reign of King Sneferu
(4th Dynasty).
Register 1:

mH bAk(t) mr(w) dwA-tAwi mH 100 dpt
16 (n)swt dpt 60 ad tA-nHs int anx-sqr 7000 iwA-awt 200,000
qd inb SmAw tA-mHw snfrw Hwwt int dpt 40 mH aS,
completion of work of a 100-cubit meru-wood dua-taui boat,
60 royal boats of type-165
, hacking up the land of the
Nubians bringing 7000 captured prisoners, 200000 cattle,
building a wall Upper and Lower Egypt “Enclosures of
Sneferu,” bringing 40 boats filled with cedar-wood
Register 2:
irt Hwt 35 Szp mr(w) 122 mH bAk(t) aS dwAtAwi
mH 100 dpt mr(w) mH 100 dpt 2 7 Tnwt
building of 35 enclosures, receiving 122 bulls, completion
of work of a 100-cubit cedar-wood dua-taui boat, 2 100-
cubit meru-wood boats, 7th time of the census.
Register 3:
saHa HDt snfrw tp r sbxt (r)sw nt snfrw tp r sbxt mHtt irt aAw
aH-(n)swt aS zp 8 Tnwt, erecting the “White Crown of
Sneferu on the Top of the Southern Gateway”and the “Red
Crown of Sneferu on the Top of the Northern Gateway,”
making cedar-wood doors of the King’s palace, 8th time of
the census.

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